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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Praquin, Nicolas;

    La thèse s’articule en deux parties distinctes. Le découpage est thématique et non chronologique. La recherche s’inscrit majoritairement dans les courants et traditions de recherche visant à explorer la fonction représentative de la comptabilité.La première partie s’intéresse à la protection du créancier « type », représentant symbolique de l’intérêt général, de l’épargne et des « tiers » ; elle vise à montrer comment la comptabilité est progressivement devenue un enjeu social lorsqu’il a été décidé de substituer à la responsabilité personnelle illimitée des associés la seule garantie en capital des apports ; la nécessité de protéger l’intérêt général contre certaines pratiques jugées abusives contraint les tribunaux à rendre des décisions qui modèlent partiellement la comptabilité.Dans ce cadre judiciaire et législatif, trois formes d’acteurs principaux s’affrontent ou coopèrent ; premièrement, les affairistes et leur conception de la comptabilité tournée vers une anticipation du résultat et une dissimulation de leurs méthodes comptables ; deuxièmement, les juges et leurs décisions qui doivent déterminer, entre anachronisme naissant et modernisme excessif, les pratiques comptables qu’ils jugent les plus adaptées à l’intérêt général ; troisièmement, le corps législatif, auquel peuvent appartenir des membres de la première catégorie, qui oscille entre la défense d’intérêts catégoriels et la prise en compte de l’intérêt général. A ceux-là s’ajoutent les commentateurs, principalement des jurisconsultes, mais également des praticiens comptables.Dans cette première partie, la comptabilité s’inscrit bien souvent en creux des pratiques et des discours ; elle se dévoile subrepticement, par touches successives. Elle est rarement au cœur des intentions ; elle semble plutôt constituer un passage obligé pour des acteurs sociaux, soit peu soucieux de faire état de procédés précieusement dissimulés, soit peu enclin à s’y intéresser car jugée trop technique ou trop éloignée de leurs préoccupations ou de leurs champs de compétence. La comptabilité apparaît alors comme un objet de légitimation sociale : légitimation de décisions jurisprudentielles puisque son interprétation détermine l’orientation de l’arrêt de la Cour ; légitimation politique, lorsqu’il s’agit de justifier l’abandon de la responsabilité illimitée personnelle, une réduction du rôle des commissaires de surveillance ou de ne pas communiquer les comptes aux assemblées d’obligataires. Ces problématiques sont articulées en trois chapitres distincts.La seconde partie cherche à comprendre la façon dont les créanciers individuels – obligataires, banques, Etat – se sont – ou ne se sont pas – emparés de la comptabilité pour protéger leurs intérêts spécifiques ; la comptabilité devient ici un mode opératoire de protection dans le jeu transactionnel entre les parties prenantes de l’entreprise ; la capacité à agir des créanciers et à transformer l’objet comptable est alors déterminante. The thesis is divided into two distinct parts. The division is thematic and not chronological. This research is mainly set in the traditions of research that aim to explore the representative functions of accounting.The first part focuses on the protection of the "typical" creditor, symbolic representation of the general interest, savings and "related parties"; it aims to show how accounting has gradually become a social issue when it was decided to replace the unlimited personal liability of the partners with the only guarantee of the capital; the need to protect the public interest against certain practices deemed abusive forces the courts to make decisions that partially shaped accounting.In this judicial and legislative framework, three main forms of actors compete or cooperate; firstly, the businessmen and their conception of accounting oriented towards an anticipation of benefits and a concealment of their accounting methods; secondly, the judges and their decisions which must determine, between incipient anachronism and excessive modernism, the accounting practices they judge the most adapted to the general interest; thirdly, the legislature, to which may belong members of the first category, which oscillates between the defense of categorial interests and the consideration of the general interest. To these are added the commentators, mainly jurisconsults, but also accounting practitioners.In this first part, accounting is often in the hollow of practices and speeches; it is revealed surreptitiously, by successive keys. It is rarely at the heart of intentions; rather, it seems to be a necessary step for social actors, either careless to mention concealed processes, or not inclined to be interested in because it is considered to be too technical or too far away from their concerns or their fields of competence. Accounting thus appears as an object of social legitimation: legitimization of judicial decisions since its interpretation determines the orientation of the Court's judgment; political legitimacy, when it comes to justify the abandonment of unlimited personal liability, reducing the role of supervisory commissioners or not reporting to bondholders' meetings. These issues are articulated in three separate chapters.The second part seeks to understand how individual creditors - bondholders, banks, government - have - or have not - used accounting to protect their specific interests; accounting becomes here a mode of operation of protection in the transactional game between the stakeholders of the company; the creditors' ability to act and transform the accounting object is then decisive.

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      Other literature type . 2003
  • Authors: Chaussende, Damien;

    Compte rendu d'ouvrage; International audience

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    Authors: Renneville, Marc; Sanchez, Jean-Lucien; Victorien, Sophie;

    Conçu en 2003, mis en ligne en 2005, Criminocorpus est un projet déjà « ancien » pour le domaine des humanités numériques. Il a marqué le paysage numérique français par sa logique thématique centré sur l'histoire de la justice, des crimes et des peines. Le projet a connu différents stades de développement et différentes modalités de soutiens. Espace d'expérimentations numériques open source et libre d'accès, il s'est peu à peu enrichi de nouvelles fonctionnalités, d'un blog externe et d'une revue constituée par migration partielle des données. En 2016, la notion de portail a été abandonnée pour recentrer le projet sur sa transformation en un musée numérique d'histoire de la justice, des crimes et des peines. Nous proposons de retracer ici les différentes étapes du projet ce qui permettra d'expliciter les options prises sur sa définition, sa politique éditoriale et son développement technique. This article presents the Criminocorpus project in its diachronic dimension. Conceived in 2003, opened in 2005, Criminocorpus appears already “old” to the field of digital humanities. It scored the French digital landscape with its thematic centered on the history of justice, crimes and punishment. It also presents a peculiarity related to its organizational and technological change. We propose to explain here the main stages of this development and ongoing projects.

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    Other literature type . 2018
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      Other literature type . 2018
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    Authors: Chouin, Gérard;

    Paper presented at the 50th Anniversary Conference, Centre of African Studies, University of Edinburgh, 6-8 June 2012; Panel on 'Recent Research in the Early Modern History of Atlantic Africa'; The 'big bang' theory - best articulated by Ivor Wilks in the late 1970s and recently revisited - is a complex heuristic monument that must be carefully deconstructed. Its claim that before the integration of forested West Africa into the European bullion market and the opening of the Atlantic trade, the forest dwellers of Ghana were hunters and gatherers has been convincingly disproved by archaeological findings during the last 15 years. Indeed, history as a discipline contains limitations that were too often underestimated in reconstructing fragments of the early history of forested Ghana, especially with regards to the 'origins' of an agrarian order. However, we also observe that large-scale, deep change definitely took place before and during the Atlantic era, which echoes significantly with sections of Wilks' theory. Some parts of the 'Big Bang' paradigm are therefore still useful as encapsulating genuine historical information and thought-provoking hypotheses, which, if adequately recontextualized, may help to open a new page of early African history.

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    Authors: Doussot, Sylvain; Vézier, Anne;

    La recherche en didactique de l’histoire s’est développée en questionnant sa spécificité disciplinaire par différence avec la didactique des sciences. La perspective de l’apprentissage de la « pensée historienne » le manifeste par un rapport approfondi à l’épistémologie, aussi bien pour penser les conditions de la conciliation des finalités critiques et civiques de son enseignement, que pour spécifier le rapport scientifique au monde social. Pourtant, cet apport de l’épistémologie n’est pas suffisant pour penser la didactique comme science sociale qui prend en compte les situations d’étude des classes par rapport aux situations de travail des historiens. Pour y parvenir pleinement, un rapprochement avec la didactique des sciences peut, paradoxalement, être fécond. C’est ce que nous proposons avec le cadre théorique de l’apprentissage par problématisation pour mieux fonder ensuite une différenciation entre ces deux didactiques disciplinaires. L’analyse se déploie à travers une étude en classe de quatrième sur la Révolution française. Les processus de problématisation historique montrent que les modèles n’y jouent pas le même rôle que dans les sciences. Researches in history education has developed partly by comparison with science education. Learning historical thinking has thus been an epistemological way to figure out how to handle critical and civic aims of history teaching, and what is history’s specific relation to the social world. However this epistemological approach is not enough to allow history education as a social science to relate classroom study of the past to historians. Going back to science education can paradoxically be helpful in that matter. This is what we try to show in this paper through the learning by problematization theoretical frame to better distinguish science and history education. In that respect we focus on a study in secondary school about the French Revolution where historical problematization processes display the specific role of templates.

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    Authors: Mayaffre, Damon; Ben Hamed, Mahé;

    International audience; Testimonials of Holocaust survivors are multilayered discursive objects caught between History and memory. We argue that this polarization is embedded in the weft of the narratives in the form of lexical traces that can be untangled quantitatively. To do this, we focus on the most frequent nouns used in a corpus of 16 biographies of survivors from Auschwitz, and use 3 complementary analytical apparatus - correspondence analysis, hierarchical classification and a network-based analysis - to identify the lexical stocks structuring the corpus. Our results confirm the polarization of the narratives between a primary mnemonic content and a secondary historical/collective re-presented one.; Entre mémoire et histoire, les récits des témoins de la Shoah sont des objets discursifs riches et complexes. Nous postulons qu’ils portent en eux l’événement traumatique, sous la forme de traces lexicales et d’organisations textuelles sous-jacentes. Les substantifs les plus utilisés sont d’abord extraits d’un corpus de 16 biographies de survivants d’Auschwitz, puis trois traitements de la trame co-occurrenttielle des récits sont proposés grâce à l’Analyse factorielle des Correspondances (AFC), la Classification descendante hiérarchique (CDH) et les réseaux. Au final, nous identifions deux lexiques imbriqués qui structurent les textes : un lexique « primaire » ou mémoriel relevant d’une mémoire intime proche de l’événement et un lexique « secondaire » ou historique relevant d’une mémoire sociale en partie réélaborée.

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    OpenEdition
    Article . 2014
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      Article . 2014
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    Authors: Baglin, Annie; Buldgen, Gaël; Dupret, Marc-Antoine; Miglio, Andrea; +4 Authors

    Figure 1: A Tribute to Arlette by her longtime friend Annie Baglin 1. Conference rationale Eighty years ago, Paul Ledoux, then in Chicago, published with Chaim Leib Pekeris the now famous work entitled Radial Pulsations of Stars. Stellar evolution was still in its infancy, numerical model were not computed on a massive scale as today. With the advent of computers and the improvement of observational data, the study of stellar structure and evolution has now become a central field of astrophysics, and pulsations have become the prime method to learn about the internal structure of stars. In the last fifteen years space telescopes provided us a tremendous amount of data, opening the way to test stellar models with unprecedented thoroughness. It is now up to theoretical stellar physi-cists to use these observations to improve stellar models and provide accurate stellar properties to fields such as exoplanetary science and Galactic archeology. The last decades were also marked by the achievements of a remarkable scientist, an inspiring col-league, a patient teacher and a friend, who devoted herself to our field of research and who celebrated her 75th birthday in August 2018, Arlette Grotsch-Noels. This conference is a tribute to Arlette. The aim of this workshop was to bring together experts of theoretical stellar physics and Galactic archeology to discuss the current issues connected to stellar structure and evolution. Topics ranged from microphysical ingredients such as atomic

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    Authors: Bataille, Camille;

    Between the early 14th century and the first thirty years of the 16th century, beliefs and practices about the Virgin Mary in Sweden undergo an evolution which, while increasing the integration of the country into European space, also singularizes it by its characteristics. For example, the influence of Saint Bridget of Sweden is considerable. As mystic and a particularly zealous devotee of the Mother of God, Bridget founded in Vadstena a monastery and a religious order whose influence is crucial on Swedish spirituality. Using primary sources produced by Bridget and her spiritual heirs, as well as those concerning the worship of the Virgin Mary in a more general perspective, this dissertation aims at documenting the major influence of Bridgettine spirituality on the religiosity of the Swedes at the end of the Middle Ages. The specificity of the Swedish Marian cult are studied on different scales: from the monastery of Vadstena to the dioceses, thanks to liturgical sources. The modalities of diffusion of Marian celebrations are studied as well as the transmission of dogmatic contents. If the methodology used in this dissertation is mainly the one of the historian, it does not rule out a temporary use of tools developped by other discipline, and especially Cognitive Sciences. Entre le début du XIVe siècle et le premiers tiers du XVIe siècle, les croyances et les pratiques des Suédois concernant la Vierge Marie connaissent une évolution qui, tout en accroissant l’intégration de la Suède dans l’espace européen, la singularise par leur caractère. L’influence de la sainte mystique Brigitte de Suède est par exemple fondamentale. Réputée être particulièrement dévote de la Mère de Dieu, Brigitte a fondé à Vadstena un monastère dont l’influence est considérable sur la spiritualité suédoise. En partant des sources produites par Brigitte et ses héritiers, ainsi que celles relatives à la célébration du culte de la Vierge d’une manière plus générale, cette thèse documente l’influence majeure de la spiritualité brigittine sur les croyances et les pratiques des Suédois à la fin du Moyen Âge. Les spécificités du culte marial suédois sont examinées à l’échelle du monastère de Vadstena puis à celles des diocèses grâce aux sources liturgiques. Les modalités de diffusion des célébrations mariales et plus généralement, de transmission de contenus dogmatiques sont également étudiées. Si la méthodologie de cette thèse relève de celle de l’historien, elle n’exclut pas un recours ponctuel aux outils développés par les sciences cognitives.

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    Other literature type . 2016
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      Other literature type . 2016
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    Authors: Barry, Laurent; Gasperoni, Michael;

    Le recours à l’ordinateur pour traiter et analyser des données généalogiques est de plus en plus fréquent. S’il ouvre des voies nouvelles, il n’est pas sans poser quelques problèmes, dont certains se situent d’ailleurs en amont. En effet, les informations collectées dans les sources historiques, par exemple, privilégient souvent les hommes et de fait les lignées agnatiques sont davantage connues. En ethnologie aussi, les corpus généalogiques constitués à partir d’enquêtes de terrain comportent leur lot d’asymétries en ce qui concerne la «mémoire » généalogique. Que faire de ces « vides », de cette « amnésie » généalogique ? Comment la mesurer ? A-t-elle un « impact » sur la structure matrimoniale d’un réseau de parenté ? Est-il possible de la contourner ? L’article revient sur ces difficultés méthodologiques, et montre, avec l’aide du logiciel Puck, différentes façons de repérer et de qualifier la déperdition de l’information généalogique. Mais ces méthodes posent à leur tour un certain nombre de problèmes. L’article propose donc une méthode de « réductions généalogiques » qui, posant des contraintes allant crescendo, permet d’évacuer les « zones d’ombre » des corpus, ne prenant en compte, dans les recensements matrimoniaux, que les individus pour lesquels une connaissance généalogique minimale est disponible. Computers are more and more frequently used to analyse genealogical data.While this development has opened new perspectives, it also raises problems, many of which already existed to a certain degree. For example, the privileged place allotted to men in the data collected from historical sources has resulted in agnatic lines being better known than uterine ones. Similar, built-in asymmetries with regard to genealogical “memory” also exist in anthropological material gathered by means of primary investigations. What can be done about such “gaps”, such genealogical “amnesia”? How can we measure it? Does it have an impact on the matrimonial structure of a kinship network? Can this impact be overcome? This article addresses these methodological difficulties and, using PUCK software, outlines different ways to identify and qualify the loss of genealogical information. These methods, however, also raise problems of their own. In answer to these, the authors suggests a method of increasingly constrained “genealogical reduction” whereby the “gray areas” in a body of data may be eliminated by retaining for matrimonial censuses only those individuals for whom minimum genealogical knowledge is available.

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    Authors: Champagnat, Pauline;

    Cette thèse a pour ambition d’analyser la relation entre littérature et identités minorisées, en se basant sur l’étude des romans Ponciá Vicêncio (2003) et Becos da memória, (2006) de Conceição Evaristo, et de Niketche : uma história de poligamia (2002) et O Alegre Canto da Perdiz, (2008) de Paulina Chiziane. L’étude s’appuie sur une approche décoloniale et comparatiste qui permet d’aller au-delà des découpages nationaux, lorsqu’elle établit un parallèle entre les éléments des contextes littéraire et historique dans lesquels évoluent les œuvres des auteures. Ces œuvres cherchent à donner une voix aux communautés historiquement mises sous silence par un pouvoir hégémonique et permettent d’éclairer des questions qui ont trait à des identités culturelles minorisées, au post-colonialisme, au racisme, au genre, au féminisme, à l’oralité, à la préservation de mémoires « souterraines » (Pollak, 1993), et à « la place de la parole » (Ribeiro, 2019). Les œuvres étudiées interrogent l’émergence de ces identités minorisées, et le rôle de la littérature dans ce processus tout en misant sur la narration faite par des femmes noires évoluant dans des sociétés ayant connu l’esclavage et la colonisation. Cette thèse met en avant la vocation de la littérature à contribuer à l’émancipation des imaginaires de nos sociétés actuelles, traversées par des préjugés sexistes et racistes. The aim of this thesis is to analyse the connection between literature and the portrayal of ethnic minorities based on the novels of Ponciá Vicêncio (2003) and Becos da memória, (2006) from Conceição Evaristo, and Niketche : uma história de poligamia (2002), and O Alegre Canto da Perdiz, (2008) from Paulina Chiziane.The research is underpinned by a decolonial approach and a scientific comparison that allows an examination beyond national boundaries, as it draws a parallel between backgrounds that influence the evolution of the work of these authors. These works seek to give a voice to historically silenced communities by a hegemonic power and shed light on minority cultural identities related to post-colonialism, racism, gender, orality, the safeguarding of “underground memories” (Pollak, 1993), and the “position of speech” (Ribeiro, 2019). These works examine the emergence of ethnic minority identities and the contribution of literature therein, referencing the narratives of black women in societies evolving from slavery and colonisation. This thesis highlights the ability of literature to contribute to the empowerment of minorities and challenge sexist and racial bias in modern society.

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11 Research products
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    Authors: Praquin, Nicolas;

    La thèse s’articule en deux parties distinctes. Le découpage est thématique et non chronologique. La recherche s’inscrit majoritairement dans les courants et traditions de recherche visant à explorer la fonction représentative de la comptabilité.La première partie s’intéresse à la protection du créancier « type », représentant symbolique de l’intérêt général, de l’épargne et des « tiers » ; elle vise à montrer comment la comptabilité est progressivement devenue un enjeu social lorsqu’il a été décidé de substituer à la responsabilité personnelle illimitée des associés la seule garantie en capital des apports ; la nécessité de protéger l’intérêt général contre certaines pratiques jugées abusives contraint les tribunaux à rendre des décisions qui modèlent partiellement la comptabilité.Dans ce cadre judiciaire et législatif, trois formes d’acteurs principaux s’affrontent ou coopèrent ; premièrement, les affairistes et leur conception de la comptabilité tournée vers une anticipation du résultat et une dissimulation de leurs méthodes comptables ; deuxièmement, les juges et leurs décisions qui doivent déterminer, entre anachronisme naissant et modernisme excessif, les pratiques comptables qu’ils jugent les plus adaptées à l’intérêt général ; troisièmement, le corps législatif, auquel peuvent appartenir des membres de la première catégorie, qui oscille entre la défense d’intérêts catégoriels et la prise en compte de l’intérêt général. A ceux-là s’ajoutent les commentateurs, principalement des jurisconsultes, mais également des praticiens comptables.Dans cette première partie, la comptabilité s’inscrit bien souvent en creux des pratiques et des discours ; elle se dévoile subrepticement, par touches successives. Elle est rarement au cœur des intentions ; elle semble plutôt constituer un passage obligé pour des acteurs sociaux, soit peu soucieux de faire état de procédés précieusement dissimulés, soit peu enclin à s’y intéresser car jugée trop technique ou trop éloignée de leurs préoccupations ou de leurs champs de compétence. La comptabilité apparaît alors comme un objet de légitimation sociale : légitimation de décisions jurisprudentielles puisque son interprétation détermine l’orientation de l’arrêt de la Cour ; légitimation politique, lorsqu’il s’agit de justifier l’abandon de la responsabilité illimitée personnelle, une réduction du rôle des commissaires de surveillance ou de ne pas communiquer les comptes aux assemblées d’obligataires. Ces problématiques sont articulées en trois chapitres distincts.La seconde partie cherche à comprendre la façon dont les créanciers individuels – obligataires, banques, Etat – se sont – ou ne se sont pas – emparés de la comptabilité pour protéger leurs intérêts spécifiques ; la comptabilité devient ici un mode opératoire de protection dans le jeu transactionnel entre les parties prenantes de l’entreprise ; la capacité à agir des créanciers et à transformer l’objet comptable est alors déterminante. The thesis is divided into two distinct parts. The division is thematic and not chronological. This research is mainly set in the traditions of research that aim to explore the representative functions of accounting.The first part focuses on the protection of the "typical" creditor, symbolic representation of the general interest, savings and "related parties"; it aims to show how accounting has gradually become a social issue when it was decided to replace the unlimited personal liability of the partners with the only guarantee of the capital; the need to protect the public interest against certain practices deemed abusive forces the courts to make decisions that partially shaped accounting.In this judicial and legislative framework, three main forms of actors compete or cooperate; firstly, the businessmen and their conception of accounting oriented towards an anticipation of benefits and a concealment of their accounting methods; secondly, the judges and their decisions which must determine, between incipient anachronism and excessive modernism, the accounting practices they judge the most adapted to the general interest; thirdly, the legislature, to which may belong members of the first category, which oscillates between the defense of categorial interests and the consideration of the general interest. To these are added the commentators, mainly jurisconsults, but also accounting practitioners.In this first part, accounting is often in the hollow of practices and speeches; it is revealed surreptitiously, by successive keys. It is rarely at the heart of intentions; rather, it seems to be a necessary step for social actors, either careless to mention concealed processes, or not inclined to be interested in because it is considered to be too technical or too far away from their concerns or their fields of competence. Accounting thus appears as an object of social legitimation: legitimization of judicial decisions since its interpretation determines the orientation of the Court's judgment; political legitimacy, when it comes to justify the abandonment of unlimited personal liability, reducing the role of supervisory commissioners or not reporting to bondholders' meetings. These issues are articulated in three separate chapters.The second part seeks to understand how individual creditors - bondholders, banks, government - have - or have not - used accounting to protect their specific interests; accounting becomes here a mode of operation of protection in the transactional game between the stakeholders of the company; the creditors' ability to act and transform the accounting object is then decisive.

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    Other literature type . 2003
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      Other literature type . 2003
  • Authors: Chaussende, Damien;

    Compte rendu d'ouvrage; International audience

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    Authors: Renneville, Marc; Sanchez, Jean-Lucien; Victorien, Sophie;

    Conçu en 2003, mis en ligne en 2005, Criminocorpus est un projet déjà « ancien » pour le domaine des humanités numériques. Il a marqué le paysage numérique français par sa logique thématique centré sur l'histoire de la justice, des crimes et des peines. Le projet a connu différents stades de développement et différentes modalités de soutiens. Espace d'expérimentations numériques open source et libre d'accès, il s'est peu à peu enrichi de nouvelles fonctionnalités, d'un blog externe et d'une revue constituée par migration partielle des données. En 2016, la notion de portail a été abandonnée pour recentrer le projet sur sa transformation en un musée numérique d'histoire de la justice, des crimes et des peines. Nous proposons de retracer ici les différentes étapes du projet ce qui permettra d'expliciter les options prises sur sa définition, sa politique éditoriale et son développement technique. This article presents the Criminocorpus project in its diachronic dimension. Conceived in 2003, opened in 2005, Criminocorpus appears already “old” to the field of digital humanities. It scored the French digital landscape with its thematic centered on the history of justice, crimes and punishment. It also presents a peculiarity related to its organizational and technological change. We propose to explain here the main stages of this development and ongoing projects.

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    Other literature type . 2018
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      Other literature type . 2018
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    Authors: Chouin, Gérard;

    Paper presented at the 50th Anniversary Conference, Centre of African Studies, University of Edinburgh, 6-8 June 2012; Panel on 'Recent Research in the Early Modern History of Atlantic Africa'; The 'big bang' theory - best articulated by Ivor Wilks in the late 1970s and recently revisited - is a complex heuristic monument that must be carefully deconstructed. Its claim that before the integration of forested West Africa into the European bullion market and the opening of the Atlantic trade, the forest dwellers of Ghana were hunters and gatherers has been convincingly disproved by archaeological findings during the last 15 years. Indeed, history as a discipline contains limitations that were too often underestimated in reconstructing fragments of the early history of forested Ghana, especially with regards to the 'origins' of an agrarian order. However, we also observe that large-scale, deep change definitely took place before and during the Atlantic era, which echoes significantly with sections of Wilks' theory. Some parts of the 'Big Bang' paradigm are therefore still useful as encapsulating genuine historical information and thought-provoking hypotheses, which, if adequately recontextualized, may help to open a new page of early African history.

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    Authors: Doussot, Sylvain; Vézier, Anne;

    La recherche en didactique de l’histoire s’est développée en questionnant sa spécificité disciplinaire par différence avec la didactique des sciences. La perspective de l’apprentissage de la « pensée historienne » le manifeste par un rapport approfondi à l’épistémologie, aussi bien pour penser les conditions de la conciliation des finalités critiques et civiques de son enseignement, que pour spécifier le rapport scientifique au monde social. Pourtant, cet apport de l’épistémologie n’est pas suffisant pour penser la didactique comme science sociale qui prend en compte les situations d’étude des classes par rapport aux situations de travail des historiens. Pour y parvenir pleinement, un rapprochement avec la didactique des sciences peut, paradoxalement, être fécond. C’est ce que nous proposons avec le cadre théorique de l’apprentissage par problématisation pour mieux fonder ensuite une différenciation entre ces deux didactiques disciplinaires. L’analyse se déploie à travers une étude en classe de quatrième sur la Révolution française. Les processus de problématisation historique montrent que les modèles n’y jouent pas le même rôle que dans les sciences. Researches in history education has developed partly by comparison with science education. Learning historical thinking has thus been an epistemological way to figure out how to handle critical and civic aims of history teaching, and what is history’s specific relation to the social world. However this epistemological approach is not enough to allow history education as a social science to relate classroom study of the past to historians. Going back to science education can paradoxically be helpful in that matter. This is what we try to show in this paper through the learning by problematization theoretical frame to better distinguish science and history education. In that respect we focus on a study in secondary school about the French Revolution where historical problematization processes display the specific role of templates.

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    Authors: Mayaffre, Damon; Ben Hamed, Mahé;

    International audience; Testimonials of Holocaust survivors are multilayered discursive objects caught between History and memory. We argue that this polarization is embedded in the weft of the narratives in the form of lexical traces that can be untangled quantitatively. To do this, we focus on the most frequent nouns used in a corpus of 16 biographies of survivors from Auschwitz, and use 3 complementary analytical apparatus - correspondence analysis, hierarchical classification and a network-based analysis - to identify the lexical stocks structuring the corpus. Our results confirm the polarization of the narratives between a primary mnemonic content and a secondary historical/collective re-presented one.; Entre mémoire et histoire, les récits des témoins de la Shoah sont des objets discursifs riches et complexes. Nous postulons qu’ils portent en eux l’événement traumatique, sous la forme de traces lexicales et d’organisations textuelles sous-jacentes. Les substantifs les plus utilisés sont d’abord extraits d’un corpus de 16 biographies de survivants d’Auschwitz, puis trois traitements de la trame co-occurrenttielle des récits sont proposés grâce à l’Analyse factorielle des Correspondances (AFC), la Classification descendante hiérarchique (CDH) et les réseaux. Au final, nous identifions deux lexiques imbriqués qui structurent les textes : un lexique « primaire » ou mémoriel relevant d’une mémoire intime proche de l’événement et un lexique « secondaire » ou historique relevant d’une mémoire sociale en partie réélaborée.

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    Article . 2014
    Data sources: OpenEdition
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      Article . 2014
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    Authors: Baglin, Annie; Buldgen, Gaël; Dupret, Marc-Antoine; Miglio, Andrea; +4 Authors

    Figure 1: A Tribute to Arlette by her longtime friend Annie Baglin 1. Conference rationale Eighty years ago, Paul Ledoux, then in Chicago, published with Chaim Leib Pekeris the now famous work entitled Radial Pulsations of Stars. Stellar evolution was still in its infancy, numerical model were not computed on a massive scale as today. With the advent of computers and the improvement of observational data, the study of stellar structure and evolution has now become a central field of astrophysics, and pulsations have become the prime method to learn about the internal structure of stars. In the last fifteen years space telescopes provided us a tremendous amount of data, opening the way to test stellar models with unprecedented thoroughness. It is now up to theoretical stellar physi-cists to use these observations to improve stellar models and provide accurate stellar properties to fields such as exoplanetary science and Galactic archeology. The last decades were also marked by the achievements of a remarkable scientist, an inspiring col-league, a patient teacher and a friend, who devoted herself to our field of research and who celebrated her 75th birthday in August 2018, Arlette Grotsch-Noels. This conference is a tribute to Arlette. The aim of this workshop was to bring together experts of theoretical stellar physics and Galactic archeology to discuss the current issues connected to stellar structure and evolution. Topics ranged from microphysical ingredients such as atomic

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    Authors: Bataille, Camille;

    Between the early 14th century and the first thirty years of the 16th century, beliefs and practices about the Virgin Mary in Sweden undergo an evolution which, while increasing the integration of the country into European space, also singularizes it by its characteristics. For example, the influence of Saint Bridget of Sweden is considerable. As mystic and a particularly zealous devotee of the Mother of God, Bridget founded in Vadstena a monastery and a religious order whose influence is crucial on Swedish spirituality. Using primary sources produced by Bridget and her spiritual heirs, as well as those concerning the worship of the Virgin Mary in a more general perspective, this dissertation aims at documenting the major influence of Bridgettine spirituality on the religiosity of the Swedes at the end of the Middle Ages. The specificity of the Swedish Marian cult are studied on different scales: from the monastery of Vadstena to the dioceses, thanks to liturgical sources. The modalities of diffusion of Marian celebrations are studied as well as the transmission of dogmatic contents. If the methodology used in this dissertation is mainly the one of the historian, it does not rule out a temporary use of tools developped by other discipline, and especially Cognitive Sciences. Entre le début du XIVe siècle et le premiers tiers du XVIe siècle, les croyances et les pratiques des Suédois concernant la Vierge Marie connaissent une évolution qui, tout en accroissant l’intégration de la Suède dans l’espace européen, la singularise par leur caractère. L’influence de la sainte mystique Brigitte de Suède est par exemple fondamentale. Réputée être particulièrement dévote de la Mère de Dieu, Brigitte a fondé à Vadstena un monastère dont l’influence est considérable sur la spiritualité suédoise. En partant des sources produites par Brigitte et ses héritiers, ainsi que celles relatives à la célébration du culte de la Vierge d’une manière plus générale, cette thèse documente l’influence majeure de la spiritualité brigittine sur les croyances et les pratiques des Suédois à la fin du Moyen Âge. Les spécificités du culte marial suédois sont examinées à l’échelle du monastère de Vadstena puis à celles des diocèses grâce aux sources liturgiques. Les modalités de diffusion des célébrations mariales et plus généralement, de transmission de contenus dogmatiques sont également étudiées. Si la méthodologie de cette thèse relève de celle de l’historien, elle n’exclut pas un recours ponctuel aux outils développés par les sciences cognitives.

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    Other literature type . 2016
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